The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is baffling, while the many-worlds interpretation is unrealistic. The time travel model attempts to provide a comprehensible explanation.

In this model we assume that the presence of a particle causes vibrations in the time coordinate of spacetime. The wave function may be identified with the amplitude of these temporal vibrations. The square of the wave function is proportional to the strength of these vibrations and gives the likelihood of finding a particle in the vicinity.

The time waves at present overlap the time waves of a moment ago, and so on, so that a particle becomes spread out over all the spacetime between the last interaction and all possible points of the next interaction. If a particle’s time coordinate is uncertain, its position and momentum are also uncertain.

When an interaction occurs, the particle is no longer available for time travel and the wave function collapses backward in time to the point of the last interaction. Since we cannot observe the past, the collapse appears instantaneous. The collapse is itself not observable, so nothing observable changes in the past.

The Schrodinger equation states that the frequency of temporal vibration is proportional to the energy. Its complex nature is a mathematical way of describing vibrations. The many-dimensional nature of the wave function is a consequence of the Hamiltonian formulation. There is no implication that the world is actually complex or many dimensional.

The relativity of simultaneity causes a uniform vibration to become a traveling wave when seen from a moving coordinate system, which is why the momentum is obtained by taking the spatial derivative of the wave function.

The antisymmetric Fermi statistics of the wave function under exchange of a pair of identical fermions is a way of stating that the particles cannot occupy the same space at the same time. If all fundamental particles are spin one-half rishon fermions, then the symmetric Bose statistics are simply obtained by exchanging rishons two pairs at a time.

Let us consider two classic examples. In the two-slit experiment, a particle may go through one slit, then back in time, then through the other slit. In the case of two quantum entangled particles, when one is observed, the wave function for that orientation collapses backward in time, leaving only the wave function for the opposite orientation.

If a time wave curved around into a circle much smaller than its wavelength, the entire whirl would appear to oscillate back and forth in time. The whirl could not dissipate due to conservation of energy and angular momentum, or other quantum numbers. We suggest that these whirls are in fact the rishons. It is also a law of nature that a rishon cannot disappear unless it meets its antirishon. This model explains how a particle can produce time waves: particles simply are trapped time waves.

The observed intrinsic spin of a rishon is far greater than what could be possessed by a small rotating mass. In our model, the internal rotational phase velocity of the time waves may be much greater than the speed of light, since no information is conveyed. This may explain how a rishon can have a large angular momentum but little mass. Since a rishon is a cloud of time waves, it would have eigenstates of angular momentum. When its angular momentum (or energy) is measured, one would always find it to be an eigenstate, in accord with general principles of quantum mechanics. This cannot be understood if a rishon is viewed as a point particle.

The V rishon may be the lowest possible energy state, while the T rishon may be the highest possible energy state, perhaps because the phase velocity has slowed down to the speed of light. Any slight instability would cause intermediate states to gain or lose energy and move toward one extreme or the other. This may explain why there are just two stable rishons, light and heavy. The bare mass may be much larger than the observed mass, due to renormalization. Unfortunately it is not known how to calculate this, so hard numbers cannot be given.

The large spin of a rishon eliminates the spherically symmetric S states, leaving the three P states to correspond with the three colors. The T rishon constantly emits and absorbs a cloud of V anti-V particles, corresponding with gluons and photons as the pair carries net color or not. The V rishon does not have enough mass to do this. The weak force arises from the transfer of a group of rishons, the W particle. Small temporal vibrations of a particle could be considered quantum gravity, which might help stabilize the particle. These vibrations might also cause a large-scale distortion of spacetime, similar to thermal expansion. We would perceive this distortion as classical gravity. The Planck equation simply states that this distortion, which we call gravity, mass, or energy is proportional to the frequency of a particle.

A rishon might have a polar temporal field caused by the circular motion of time waves, analogous to a magnetic field. Particles would be ejected preferentially along the direction of this field, because time flows in that direction, thus violating parity. The temporal field would be aligned with or against the direction of external time, corresponding to rishons or antirishons. Because of the time difference, the two would have slightly different reaction rates, producing an excess of hydrogen over antihydrogen, which have the same rishonic content. The photon and gluon are symmetric with respect to matter and antimatter, but the W is not, so only the weak force violates parity.

Time dilation and the relativity of simultaneity are features of special relativity, while in general relativity mass influences the flow of time and gravitational radiation consists in part of time waves. Therefore our concept of time waves has some precedent. Quantum mechanics and general relativity both describe disturbances of spacetime and together provide a complete picture. Everything can be explained as waves, whirls, or bends in spacetime.

When a particle interacts, it stops time-travelling into the past, because the coherence of the time waves is broken. The wave function collapses, or disappears, backward in time. It is as though the wave function never existed at all, so it vanishes instantaneously in all frames, in agreement with the fundamental principle of relativity, that there is no preferred frame.

In the rishon model, all neutral matter has equal amounts of T and anti-T rishons. Under sufficient pressure, theses would be forced together and annihilate, so matter would convert to photons or neutrinos and escape before a naked singularity could form, or in a big crunch.

The collapse of a wave function is an irreversible process, so quantum mechanics does not conserve information, in a black hole, or anywhere else. Gravity is a curvature of spacetime, so the need for gravitons is questionable.

In the rishon model, a photon consists of a V anti-V pair, so, like the neutrino, it might have a small rest mass.

If the wavelength of a rishon’s internal time wave is smaller than the rishon, the rishon would still oscillate in time, but in a more complicated way, perhaps giving rise to the effects associated with spin.

The P states mentioned above are conjectured to be states of intrinsic spin having spin one-half.

The photon and vector bosons have different masses because they are made of different rishons. Symmetry breaking is not needed.

Particles are disturbances in spacetime and according to general relativity would therefore have mass. The Higgs mechanism is not needed.

It would be of great interest to discover and study the equations which govern the structure of the rishons.